Scientific courage is perhaps one of the most referred and feared qualities in the modern scientist because of the conflicts of interest inherent in the pursuit of the scientific truth.
New discoveries disrupt the status-quo and displace those who benefit most from outdated views. New industries are born and new economic opportunities emerge. The status-quo has always had the tendency to protect itself from rapid innovations from breakthroughs. 
“Most people say that it is the intellect which makes a great scientist.
They are wrong: it is character.” – Albert Einstein
Space Exploration, Wormholes and Scientific Courage
This article is dedicated to space exploration of this solar system, wormholes and how new discoveries provide evidence for scientific courage in our modern scientists.
Before we begin, let’s remember that solving problems must always leave the door open to new realities and the quality of our broad conversation is highly correlated to our ability to solve problems. It should not matter whose opinion it is. We must consider the language from start to finish and give merit from a reasonable perspective.
Space Exploration: Introduction to Our Solar System
The Solar System is the Sun and the objects that orbit the Sun. Our planetary system of eight planets and various secondary bodies: dwarf planets and other small objects that orbit the Sun directly, as well as planetary satellites (moons).
The vast majority of the system’s mass is the Sun (98%), with most of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter.  The two largest planets, Jupiter and Saturn, are composed mostly of hydrogen and helium. The two remotest planets, Uranus and Neptune, are composed of substances with relatively high melting points called ices, such as water, ammonia and methane, and are often referred to separately as “ice giants.”
The Solar System also contains regions populated by smaller objects; the asteroid belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter, and consists of rock and metal. Beyond Neptune’s orbit lies the Kuiper belt and a scattered disc composed mostly of ices.
A natural satellite, or moon, is a celestial body that orbits another, which is called its primary. There are 173 known natural satellites orbiting planets in the Solar System: Mercury and Venus have no natural satellites, Earth has one and Mars has two tiny natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos.
The Sun and Earth Travel Through Space
When scientists observe Earth’s movements in space, they see that all the planets of our solar system are following the Sun in a heliocentric movement. Consequently, because our sun and galaxy are moving forward through space, the Earth spirals at an incredible distance each year. How far the Earth moves depends on reference points acquired from a space observatory.
As Nassim Haramein from the Resonance Project describes, “Many have been taught the solar system has the Sun in the middle with the planets going around and around in a simple circular orbit. However, not only does that not account for the motion of the Sun around the galactic center, but it also does not include its forward movement.” 
As the earth spirals through space, it and the other planets trace beautiful and geometric patterns around the Sun.
The Black Holes in our Galaxy are not Devouring Monsters
After more than fifty years of theoretical models, society now has a variety of observations of black holes at various scale levels, from stellar to galactic, and cosmological phenomena. When astronomers first began theorizing about black holes, they were expecting that a super massive black hole (SMBH) would consume everything in its vicinity.
Recently however, a team of researchers at UMass Amherst used long observation times (over 5 weeks), and with an improved spectral resolving power from the Chandra instrument (launched in 1999), reached a new conclusion.
According to Daniel Wang from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, “In principle, super massive black holes suck in everything … but we found this is not correct. Instead it rejects about 99 percent of this super-hot material, only letting a small amount in, though exactly how it happens is still another question.”  
Scientific Courage: More Like Grey Holes
Based on these new observations, Stephen Hawking has also redefined the event horizon of the black hole by saying, “This suggests that black holes should be redefined as metastable bound states of the gravitational field.”
In layman terms, Hawking concludes that this effectively means that information can also be emitted from the black hole — making them more like “grey holes,” where information (matter and energy) can go in, and come out.
His new conclusion is in direct contradiction to his previous 30-year-old theory that suggested that all the information that fell into a black hole would be forever lost, known as “information loss paradox.” As such, we recognize this as a great example of the scientific courage needed to move forward beyond old and outdated theories. 
MIT physicist has found two entangled quarks create a blackhole
Recall in a previous article which introduced the quantum physics principle of quantum entanglement which is often described as unexplained phenomenon in which two particles can be connected as great distance. Albert Einstein famously referred to it as “spooky action at a distance.”
Recently, however, an MIT physicist found that two entangled particles simultaneously give rise to a wormhole connecting the pair further, where information comes in, goes out.
A Misconception: Astronauts Do Not Float in Space
We know there are many challenges and misconceptions about space travel. For one, we often hear that astronauts float in space because it does not have gravity, but this is incorrect. Gravity is a constant in the universe and is present at all points.
Astronauts at the International Space Station are not floating, but merely falling at high speeds captured in and around Earth’s orbit, tracing elliptical patterns in curved spacetime.
As Einstein proposed, spacetime is curved by matter, and free-falling objects in Earth’s orbit are moving along straight paths in curved spacetime which are called “geodesics.” 
Atmosphere of Earth
The atmosphere of Earth is composed of layers of gases confined by the planet’s magnetic field. It protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reduces temperature extremes between day and night.
It also becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between it and outer space. Hubble and other telescopes orbit in space above Earth’s atmosphere to take high-resolution images of very distant stars due to space’s near-vacuum state which eliminates optical interferences.
What is the Closest Star?
The nearest star to the Earth, apart from the Sun, is Proxima Centauri, which is estimated to be 39.9 trillion km, or 4.2 light-years away. Travelling at the orbital speed of the Space Shuttle (8km/s or ~30,000 km/h), it would take about 150,000 years to get there.  Consequently, we can say that the closest star, apart from the Sun, is very far from us.
Further, stars are not spread uniformly across the universe, but are normally grouped into galaxies along with interstellar gas and dust. Nebulae are often star-forming regions, such as in the Eagle Nebula.
The Sun and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)
Coronal mass ejections (CME) from the Sun release huge quantities of matter and electromagnetic radiation into space above the Sun’s surface. When ejections are directed towards Earth, the shock wave of the traveling mass can create geomagnetic storms that disrupt the Earth’s magnetosphere.
Furthermore, when scientists want to observe how these ejections travel to Earth’s atmospheric edges, they can’t. It is not well understood how these ejections travel to Earth. Solar winds created by CME’s, just appear, after some time delay, in our atmosphere, and magnetically travel through our planet’s various field lines. It is believed that “magnetic reconnections” in regions around Earth’s magnetic poles then cause spectacles known as the “aurorae.”
Simplicity and Awareness to Find a Balanced Future
It is critical for the scientific community to find the scientific courage, within their own spheres of influence, to ensure that interpretations of results are properly anchored in scientific truth rather than old and outdated theories. We should not fear sharing scientific knowledge, but instead fear those who do not share or who have limited the eternal scientific path to a selected few possible answers and investigation methods.
If you love the content in this blog on scientific courage, we invite you to check out our extremely well-reviewed book, Conceptual Revolutions in Science by Adam B. Dorfman.