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Black Hole Theory to Power a Scientific Revolution, 2016 News Updates

Black Hole Theory, Black Holes, Black Hole

While we still have lots to discover about black hole theory and its connections to the cosmos, our desire to explore the unknowns and follow the evidence wherever it may lead could enable a scientific revolution.

Going into the year 2016 and beyond, black hole theory could propel a scientific revolution to further explore the unknowns and the connections between all things.

We know that scientific knowledge is a powerful force, but as the old adage goes, “with great power comes greater responsibility,” and as scientific understandings evolve, the applications become increasingly exhilarating and connections across disciplines enable powerful conceptual revolutions to take hold.

Progress is made by trial and failure; the failures are generally a hundred times more numerous than the successes ; yet they are usually left unchronicled. – William Ramsay

In my opinion, the story that underpins black hole theory reveals that while scientific breakthroughs inspire innovations, it also reminds us to develop a mindset that solving our global problems requires leaving the door open to new realities and unseen connections. [1] Here is a roundup of recent scientific news related to black hole theory.

Quick Recap

Prior to 2013, society had more than fifty years of theoretical models on black holes, from stellar to galactic and cosmological phenomena, and had developed numerous observations at various scales. And, during this entire time, the majority of astronomers held the position that a super massive black hole (SMBH) would consume everything in its vicinity; but this concept was wrong.

Black Holes Are Not Devouring Monsters

In August 2013, a team of researchers at UMass Amherst used long observation times (over 5 weeks), with an improved spectral resolving power from the Chandra instrument (launched in 1999) and detailed knowledge of the nearest SMBH, Sagittarius A*, astronomers reached a new conclusion. [2]

According to Daniel Wang from the University of Massachusetts Amherst “In principle, super massive black holes suck in everything … but we found this is not correct. Instead, it rejects about 99 percent of this super-hot material, only letting a small amount in, though exactly how it happens is still another question.” He added

Stephen Hawking Updates His Theory

In February 2013, based on these new observations, Stephen Hawking subsequently redefined the event horizon of the black hole and concluded that information can also be emitted from the black hole – making them more like “grey holes,” where information can go in, and come out. His new conclusion was in direct contradiction to his previous 30-year-old theory that suggested that all the information that fell into a black hole would be forever lost, known as “information loss paradox.” [3] We view this as a great example of the scientific courage needed to replace outdated theories. [4]

However, Hawking’s 2013 announcement was largely ignored by the physics community because he provided no evidence for it. More recently, in early January 2016, Hawking, Perry, and Strominger released a much-anticipated research paper that provided a different resolution to the information loss paradox. In this argument, black holes remain much the same, but quantum information can be stored in and retrieved from the event horizon of a black hole. Moreover, this new model has mathematical evidence to support it. [5]

Matter Spun Out of Black Hole

On November 27, 2015, published in the journal Science, an international team of astrophysicists for the first time witnessed a star being pulled towards the black hole and then was ejected at nearly the speed of light. So, matter did not pass the event horizon and was accelerated at incredible speeds, due to magnetic fields in the accretion disk, then launched into space through the jets of the spinning black hole. [6]

“These events are extremely rare,” said lead researcher Sjoert van Velzen from Johns Hopkins University. “It’s the first time we see everything from the stellar destruction followed by the launch of a conical outflow and we watched it unfold over several months.” [7] [8]

Visible Light Escape’s a Black Hole

On January 7, 2016, Japanese researchers announced that they had detected light waves from V404 Cygni – an active black hole in the constellation of Cygnus the Swan. Writing in the journal Nature, Mariko Kimura of Kyoto University and others reported how telescopes observed these flashes of light coming from the black hole over a two week period. Even more amazing, their reports suggests that black holes can even be seen through an amateur optical telescope as the material from surrounding space falls into them and releases bursts of light. [9]

“We now know that we can make observations based on optical rays – visible light, in other words – and that black holes can be observed without high-spec x-ray or gamma-ray telescopes,” Kimura said. [10] 

In 2017, The Event Horizon Snapshot Of A Black Holes Will Be Taken

On January 8, 2016, Prof Ozel, from the University of Arizona, provided an update on the project at the 227th meeting of the American Astronomical Society. He announced that a network of nine radio telescopes, positioned around the globe, will be ready to take the first ever picture of a black hole’s event horizon in 2017. The project, called the Event Horizon Telescope, has completed most of its technical preparations as well as extensive theoretical calculations. It will focus on Sagittarius A* at the Milky Way’s centre, the same black hole explored by the team at UMass Amherst. [11]

What’s Next?

So, what comes next? I don’t know. But, while we still have lots to discover about black hole theory and its connections to the cosmos, our desire to go beyond outdated theories, explore the unknowns and follow the evidence wherever it may lead, will enable us to make significant progress, and that’s a good thing.

The Connected Universe

In 2016, the documentary film The Connected Universe by Malcom Carter, is expected to be released. This groundbreaking film will explore the pioneering research by Nassim Haramein, the Director of Research at the Resonance Foundation. The film will attempt to visually capture Haramein’s bold new predictions that at the atomic level, each proton contains an extremely small black hole and this provides the connections between all points in space. [12]

The film discusses the confirmed experimental results, interpretations and their implications. He also makes a connection between the work of Max Planck (one of the fathers of Quantum Physics) and Einstein, which allows Haramein to include gravity in quantum physics for the first time. The Connected Universe crowdfunding campaign was IndieGogo’s highest grossing documentary of all time. [13]

The second video features some of the biggest names in modern physics, including renowned theoretical physicist Professor Leonard Susskind from Stanford University. The discussion primarily explores new findings in quantum entanglement, black hole theory and the holographic universe.

 

 

References:

[1] https://conceptualrevolutions.com/2015/09/09/black-holes-epigenetics-and-sound-bubbles-new-definitions/ 
[2] http://www.umass.edu/newsoffice/article/wang-international-team-discover-why-super
[3] http://resonance.is/stephen-hawking-goes-grey/
[4] https://conceptualrevolutions.com/2015/01/16/scientific-courage-space-exploration-and-wormholes/
[5] http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/dark-star-diaries/stephen-hawking-s-new-black-hole-paper-translated-an-interview-with-co-author-andrew-strominger/
[6] http://www.thephysicsmill.com/2015/04/02/the-long-arms-of-the-black-hole/
[7] http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151127101721.htm
[8] http://www.sciencealert.com/for-the-first-time-scientists-have-watched-a-black-hole-eating-a-star-and-then-spitting-it-back-out
[9] http://nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature16452
[10] http://www.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/research/research_results/2015/160107_1.html
[11] http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-35258378
[12] http://hiup.org/category/articles/ 
[13] https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/the-connected-universe-film#/

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    By: DorfmanAdam

    Curiosity is something that drives us to find answers along our unique life paths. For me, Adam B. Dorfman, that path began with an MBA at the University of Toronto and with several years in the capital markets before he began to explore emerging sciences. Adam then founded the website Concept Evolution to explore these new scientific concepts, with a healthy skepticism, and has since added an exceptional team of writers, with strong scientific backgrounds, to help him. The team at Concept Evolution is extremely passionate to follow these emerging studies, while exploring the philosophy of science, as these immature sciences, become mature scientific fields.

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